Regenerative medicine can be defined as ‘an interdisciplinary field of research and clinical applications focused on the repair, replacement or regeneration of cells, tissues or organs to restore impaired function resulting from any cause, including congenital defects, disease, trauma and ageing’.
Regenerative aesthetics refers to the application of regenerative medicine principles in aesthetic or cosmetic treatments, products and services. Regenerative medicine is the harnessing or management of the body’s own natural potential to repair, restore and rejuvenate damaged or aging cells and structures to a more healthy and youthful state. The human body is blessed with an incredible potential to repair and rejuvenate itself through the intricate and complicated interaction of growth factors and specific signaling peptides.
What are Exosomes
One of the newest advancements in nanotechnology, exosomes are extracellular vesicles that produce chemical messengers that direct how other cells work. Exosomes are produced by every cell type as a means of intercellular communication. They are derived from mesenchymal stem cells sterilized and filtered from amniotic fluid. They contain lipids, messenger-RNA, micro-RNA, cytokines, and proteins that help create a regenerative response to various treatment therapies. Other cells react to these messaging signals and will change their behavior accordingly. By isolating the signals produced by stem cells and utilizing the signals as opposed to the cells themselves there is a minimal risk for side effects.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes
This very unique type of exosomes is produced by stem cells of the connective tissue lineage – the origin of skin, hair, bone, muscle, cartilage etc. MSC exosomes are very different that exosomes found in adult bone marrow, which has a preponderance of hematopoietic stem cell exosomes, or amniotic fluid, which has primarily maternal epithelial cell exosomes. The distinct ability of MSC exosomes to induce connective tissue synthesis may be the basis of what has been observed with stem cell therapy.
Effects of MSC exosomes on Skin
- Stimulate fibroblast proliferation and migration
- Increase collagen extracellular matrix production/deposition
- Regulate tissue remodeling to reduce scarring
- Increase the number of hair follicles in the growth phase
- Regenerate dermal papilla cells of hair follicle.
Anti – Inflammatory
Exosomes stimulate the proliferation and migration of cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes and specific endogenous progenitor cells. This increases angiogenesis (new blood vessel formation), improves survival of damaged tissues, and reduces scarring.
Tissue Regeneration & Remodeling
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to reduce apoptosis (programmed cell death), which could lead to less tissue damage in response to disease of injury. MSC Exosomes have the capacity to enhance tissue remodeling by promoting a normal lattice-structure of collagen fibers for reduced scarring and more normal healing.